The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and time course of aminoglycoside (AG)-induced serum creatinine elevation in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This prospective study included patients with and without DM2 who were administered AG parenterally. The outcome of interest was the extent and time course of serum creatinine elevation suggestive of renal injury during AG therapy. Data were entered and analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 16). Of 94 patients included in the study, there were 42 DM2 and 52 non-DM2 patients. There was no significant between-group difference in initial (P=0.18) and final serum creatinine (P=0.15). Furthermore, no significant difference in serum creatinine elevation was observed between patients with and without DM2 during the course of AG therapy. Eleven (26.2%) of 42 DM2 patients and 13 (25%) of 52 non-DM2 patients had an increase of ?44.2 μmol/L in serum creatinine level during therapy (P=0.89). In DM2 group, a significant rise (P=0.04) in serum creatinine level was evident on day 4 and maximum rise (28%) from baseline value was evident on day 6 of therapy. Similar extent and time course of serum creatinine elevation was observed in non-DM2 group. In conclusion, type 2 diabetes mellitus is not a risk factor for aminoglycoside-induced renal injury.