Isolation, Identification and Pharmacological Effects of Mandragora autumnalis Fruit Flavonoids Fraction
Publication Type
Original research

Since ancient times, Mandragora autumnalis has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of numerous ailments. In light of this, the current study was designed to isolate and identify the chemical constituents of the flavonoids fraction from M. autumnalis ripe fruit (FFM), and evaluate its DPPH scavenging, anti-lipase, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antidiabetic effects. An ethyl acetate extract of M. autumnalis was subjected to a sequence of silica gel column chromatography using different eluents with various polarities. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were identified using different spectral techniques, including 1H NMR and 13C NMR. FFM’s anti-diabetic activity was assessed using a glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation assay, as well as an inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase using standard biochemical assays. The FFM anti-lipase effect against porcine pancreatic lipase was also evaluated. Moreover, FFM free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH test and antimicrobial properties against eight microbial strains using the micro-dilution method were also assessed. Four flavonoid aglycones were separated from FFM and their chemical structures were identified. The structures of the isolated compounds were established as kaempferol 1, luteolin 2, myricetin 3 and (+)-taxifolin 4, based on NMR spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicity test results showed high cell viability (at least 90%) for up to 1 mg/mL concentration of FFM, which is considered to be safe. A dose-dependent increase in GLUT4 translocation was significantly shown (p < 0.05) when the muscle cells were treated with FFM up to 0.5 mg/mL. Moreover, FFM revealed potent α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPPH scavenging and porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities compared with the positive controls, with IC50 values of 72.44 ± 0.89, 39.81 ± 0.74, 5.37 ± 0.41 and 39.81 ± 1.23 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, FFM inhibited the growth of all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains and showed the greatest antibacterial activity against the K. pneumoniae strain with a MIC value of 0.135 µg/mL. The four flavonoid molecules that constitute the FFM have been shown to have medicinal promise. Further in vivo testing and formulation design are needed to corroborate these findings, which are integral to the pharmaceutical and food supplement industries

Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Publisher Country
Thomson Reuters
Impact Factor
Publication Type
Online only