Additive manufacturing is a promising tool that has proved its value in various applications. Among its technologies, the fused filament fabrication 3D printing technique stands out with its potential to serve a wide variety of applications, ranging from simple educational purposes to industrial and medical applications. However, as many materials and composites can be utilized for this technique, the processability of these materials can be a limiting factor for producing products with the required quality and properties. Over the past few years, many researchers have attempted to better understand the melt extrusion process during 3D printing. Moreover, other research groups have focused on optimizing the process by adjusting the process parameters. These attempts were conducted using different methods, including proposing analytical models, establishing numerical models, or experimental techniques. This review highlights the most relevant work from recent years on fused filament fabrication 3D printing and discusses the future perspectives of this 3D printing technology.