This study aims to identify the crisis of the 3rd century AD in Rome and its impact on Palestine from all aspects of life from the assassination of the Roman Emperor Alexander Severus in 235 AD to the reign of Carinus in 284. In addition to studying the reforms carried out by Diocletian with the aim of saving Rome from the fall. Despite the scarcity of contemporary historical sources of this period, the researcher relied on available sources such as Historia Augusta, Herodiano. Cassius Dio etc. In addition to the results of archaeological excavations in Palestine. The researcher followed the historical approach in
writing this study. One of the most important results of the study is that the population of Palestine is not affected by the crisis of the third century AD. This is evidenced by the discovery of many houses and their luxurious mosaic floors, which indicate economic prosperity. However, the impact of the crisis on the Roman ruling authority in Palestine was the dispatch of Roman garrisons to protect its eastern borders and restrictions on the possession of horses that became under state control. As a result, horse racing fields have been transformed into wrestling fields, due to the lack of the horses
to participate in such games. Finally, the Romans contributed to the persecution of early Christians such as Aurelian and Diocletian.
Keywords: Crisis of the Third Century, Palestine, Palmyra. Persecution of Christians, Diocletian, Romans