Impaired wound healing is a common health challenge that is affecting millions of patients worldwide. It is normally associated with many health problems like pressure ulcers, diabetic foot and severe burns, rendering the affected patients prone to various complications due to the long healing time. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of single-wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes complexed with chitosan hydrogel to improve the healing of wounds. Initially, the effects of the complexes on the viability and functionality of fibroblasts was investigated in engineered connective tissues. Then, their activity on wound healing was investigated in a mouse model with induced full thickness wounds, where these wounds received a daily course treatment with theses complexes. Finally, the effect of the complexes on collagen deposition by fibroblasts was investigated in vitro. The engineered connective tissues studies showed that fibroblasts were viable in the presence of the complexes and were still able to effectively organize and contract the extracellular matrix. In vivo data showed that both types of complexes could improve the re-epithelialization of the healing wounds, however they could also increase the percentage of wounds with higher fibrosis, and in particular chitosan-multiwall carbon nanotubes complex could also significantly enhance the extensiveness of this fibrosis, which is in line with in vitro data that showed a concentration-dependent enhancement of collage deposition by these complexes. These observations were associated with an increase in some inflammatory signs at the wound bed. Single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes complexed with chitosan could improve the re-epithelialization of wounds, but an increase in fibrosis was detected.