Introduction: Obesity is an epidemic problem worldwide. It is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue is a primary site of obesity-induced pro-inflammatory factors such asleptin. Curcuminoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents, however evidence on the polar fraction of Curcuma longa is scarce and the effect on leptin release never been investigated. Therefore, we will investigate the influence of aqueous C. longa extract on leptin release from human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT).
Methods: SAT explants were obtained from patients who underwent abdominal surgery. Tissue explants were treated in triplicates with or without 0.1 and 1 mg/ml aqueous C. longa extracts and incubated for 24 and 48 hours. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of leptin secreted by SAT.
Results: Patients were both males (67%) and females (33%) with an average of 33.4 Kg/m2(BMI) and 43 years old. We have shown that 0.1 and 1 mg/ml C. longa extract inhibited the secretion of leptin from adipose tissue explants treated for 24, while 1 mg/ml inhibited leptin after 48 hours treatment. Quantity of basal leptin released from SAT derived from females was higher than from males. However, this could be because females were morbidly obese.
Conclusion: Our data demonstrates for the first time the inhibitory effect of aqueous C. longa extract on leptin release; shedding the light on the role of leptin and adipose tissue in the mechanism of C. longa in reducing low-grade inflammation. This overcomes the poor solubility and consequently the low bioavailability disadvantages of curcuminoids.