CELADONITE FROM SMYRNA (IZMIR-TURKEY); VITRUVIUS WROTE IT RIGHT?
Mümtaz Çolak1, Hamdallah A. Béarat2 and İbrahim Gündoğan3
1. Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Geological Engineering, İzmir-Turkey
2. Chemical Engineering, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
3. Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Geological Engineering, İzmir-Turkey
Important information regarding the first green earth came out in the 1st century BC by Vitruvius in his De Architecture in Europe. Vitruvius mentioned about two sources of green earth pigments in the Roman times. One of them is Verona in Italy, the other is Smryna (Izmir) in Turkey (Hradil, et al., 2011). According to Odin et al. (1988), first source is celadonite, which was found in Eocene volcanites on Monte Baldo region, second is celadonite came from Trodos massif in Cyprus. Izmir is a port city at this time; therefore, pigment was sold under the name of "Earth of Smyrna". Bearat and Pradell (1996) accepted also celadonite originated from Cyprus via Smyrna, and main mineralogical marker of Cyprus celadonite bearing zeolite, which was found in most of Roman green pigments.
Any celadonite formation is not known so far in Izmir and around. Green volcanic rocks used in the walls of Levantine and Greek houses around of Izmir (Yavuz et al., 2017) were caused the green pigment existence. Green volcanic rocks were also used in Smyrne agora where quarries are located on 5 km southeast of Smyrna agora. Petrographic, XRD, SEM studies of green volcanic show that existence of celadonite bearing with zeolite and cristobalite.