Introduction. In traditional medicine, many pharmacological activities have already been ascribed to the genus of Teucrium plant. These include antirheumatic antispasmodic, anthelmintic, diuretic, hypoglycemic, and anticancer effects. The recent investigation aimed to characterize and estimate the chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer potentials of the essential oil isolated by the microwave-ultrasonic apparatus from Teucrium pruinosum leaves collected from Palestine. Methods. The essential oil (EO) was analyzed by Gas Chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while its anticancer activity was evaluated against HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells. The ability of T. pruinosum EO to inhibit the conversion of Arachidonic Acid (AA) to PGH2 by ovine COX-1 and human recombinant COX-2 was determined using a COX inhibitor screening assay. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the EO was evaluated on the basis of the scavenging activity with a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, while Trolox was used as a positive control. Results. Forty-four molecules were identified in T. pruinosum EO, representing 100% of the total EO. Agarospirol was found to be the most abundant component (45.53%) followed by caryophyllene (19.35%). However, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor assay revealed that T. pruinosum has potential COX-1 and Cox-2 inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.25 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the T. pruinosum EO showed moderate antioxidant capacity with an IC50 value of 16.98±0.84 μg/ml in comparison with the positive control Trolox, which has an antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 2.09±0.17 μg/ml. In addition, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, 15.625, 7.67, and 3.84 mg/ml of T. pruinosum EO treatments inhibited mitochondrial activity (cell viability) significantly and extremely by 90-95%. Conclusion. The current study provided data that revealed that the T. pruinosum EO could be a suitable candidate for use as a novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant medication. Further clinical trials would be required to ensure these effects and to allow the design of suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms from this natural oil. © 2018 Nidal Jaradat et al.