The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata, which causes taeniosis in humans and cysticercosis in cattle, is of medical and economic importance. Understanding the parasite’s genetic population structure may help to analyze transmission patterns and aid in the development of control measures. As information on sequence variability is scarce for European isolates, this study aimed to elucidate the intraspecific genetic variability of T. saginata cysts from German cattle by sequence comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) genes, in relationship to sequences from other geographical origins. Cysts were collected from northern German, Swiss, and Belgian cattle. Moreover, proglottids from an adult T. saginata specimen from Palestine were included. Amplification and Sanger sequencing of the cox1 gene was successful for 57 samples (45 German, 9 Swiss, 2 Belgian, 1 Palestinian), whereas 32 sequences were obtained for the nad5 gene (21 German, 10 Swiss, 1 Palestinian). For German isolates, sequence comparison revealed minor genetic variability with two polymorphic sites and mutations in both genes. Three haplotypes with haplotype diversity of 0.088 for cox1 and 0.186 for nad5, as well as nucleotide diversities of 0.00028 and 0.00095, respectively, were observed. Comparison of the cox1 gene sequence of German isolates with other European, African, American, and Asian isolates obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information (total of 71 sequences) raised 11 polymorphic sites and mutations as well as 10 haplotypes (haplotype diversity: 0.239; nucleotide diversity: 0.00097). Although nad5 sequence comparison comprised less sequences (N = 33), analyses revealed 11 polymorphic sites, 12 mutation sites, and 7 haplotypes (haplotype diversity: 0.335, nucleotide diversity: 0.00391), indicating a better resolution of genetic variability compared to cox1. Thus, nad5 may be particularly useful for in-depth studies on genetic divergence of T. saginata.