Comparative biology and life tables of Trichogramma aurosum Sugonjaev & Sorokina (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Cydia pomonella L. at constant temperatures
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Original research

The influence of constant temperatures on biological parameters of German strains of Trichogramma aurosum Sugonjaev & Sorokina (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory on eggs of Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Development time and longevity of all strains were decreased as temperature increased. Development time of the strains differed significantly only when exposed to 15°, 20°, and 25°C. Cumulative fertility and longevity differed significantly at 15° and 20°C. Realized fertility differed significantly at all constant temperatures. Emergence rates of all strains were less than 65% and were decreased even
further as temperature increased. Female-biased sex ratio ranged from 65% to 100% at all constant
temperatures. The low temperature threshold for T. aurosum was 10°C and the mean number of degreedays at 15°, 20°, 25° and 30°C was 175, 183, 173 and 185, respectively. The Bavarian strain tolerated high temperatures and had the highest parasitization capability, while the Hessian strain had the lowest parasitization at all temperatures. Fertility life table analysis revealed a major effect of temperature on the population growth parameters. Net reproductive rate was highest at intermediate constant temperatures in all strains, with the highest rate recorded for the Bavarian strains at all constant temperatures. Mean cohort generation time, and population doubling time
decreased as temperature increased. The daily intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were
positively correlated with temperature. The relevance of our results is discussed in the context of climatic
adaptation, intraspecific variability and biological control.

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