This paper focuses on the study of the natural characteristics of the Palestinian part of the Jordan Valley. The study of the natural factors of the region consists of an array of elements. Location was investigated since it affects the human distribution and activities. Also, the geological structure and the development of the sedimentary rocks of the region were investigated. The geological structure is considered one of the most significant factors that determine characteristics of the region which, in turn, affects patterns of land use. In addition, the geological strata may contain mineral resources that may change the pattern of agricultural land use in the region. Topography of the region was also studied as it governs the soil distribution through the process of erosion and sedimentation. Furthermore, soil characteristics change horizontally because of the differences in the degree and direction of slope. Climate characteristics were also investigated, where each climate element was studied separately, then, the sources of surface and underground water were studied. The study also discussed soil types and vegetation in the Jordan Valley.