This paper considers ways in which exile is represented by post-1948 exiled Palestinian authors and Modernist American expatriate writers in relation to the different modes of departures they manifest. It illustrates that while exile is represented in Fawaz Turki’s memoirs as an involuntary departure from home, it is described in Malcolm Cowley’s memoirs as a voluntary departure from home. In so doing, I develop the brief distinction made by McCarthy between the exile and the expatriate, who argues that the departure of the expatriate from his or her home is ‘wholly voluntary’, while the departure of the exile is the reverse. This chapter also builds on Said’s brief distinction between representations of exile by (American) expatriate Modernist authors and (Palestinian) exiled writers. As I mentioned in my introduction to the thesis, Said argues that while (American) expatriate Modernists chose to live in ‘exile’, exiled (Palestinian) authors were forced out of their homeland by an external force.
 McCarthy, ‘A Guide to Exiles, Expatriates, and Internal Émigrés’, p.51.