Green synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanodots from sage leaves for selective anticancer activity on 2D liver cancer cells and 3D multicellular tumor spheroids
Publication Type
Original research

Carbon nanodots, a family of carbon-based nanomaterials, have been synthesized through different methods from various resources, affecting the properties of the resulting product and their application. Herein, carbon nanodots (CNDs) were synthesized with a green and simple hydrothermal method from sage leaves at 200 °C for 6 hours. The obtained CNDs are well dispersed in water with a negative surface charge (ζ-potential = −11 mV) and an average particle size of 3.6 nm. The synthesized CNDs showed concentration-dependent anticancer activity toward liver cancer (Hep3B) cell lines and decreased the viability of the cancer cells to 23% at the highest used concentration (250 μg ml−1 of CNDs). More interestingly, the cytotoxicity of the CNDs was tested in normal liver cell lines (LX2) revealed that the CNDs at all tested concentrations didn't affect their viability including at the highest concentration showing a viability of 86.7%. The cellular uptake mechanisms of CNDs were investigated and they are thought to be through energy-dependent endocytosis and also through passive diffusion. The main mechanisms of endocytosis were lipid and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. In addition, the CNDs have hindered the formation of 3D spheroids from the Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Hence, it would be concluded that the synthesized CNDs from sage are more highly selective to liver cancer cells than normal ones. The CNDs' cancer-killing ability would be referred to as the production of reactive oxygen species.

Samer Abdallah
the Royal Society of Chemistry
Publisher Country
United Kingdom
Impact Factor
Publication Type
Prtinted only