The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant factor in both morbidity and mortality rates around the world. The Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) procedure stands out as a crucial intervention for patients dealing with coronary artery disease in this setting. However, this procedure is associated with psychological challenges that can impact postoperative recovery. This study aimed to describe the evolution of depression, stress, and anxiety levels in patients undergoing CABG and identify influencing factors. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in six hospitals, collecting data using various scales before surgery (one week) and after surgery (three weeks). The sample included 116 men (58%). High levels of perceived stress and depression were observed both before and after surgery, with a significant reduction in stress levels (mean decreased from 12.59 to 11.16, t = -6.114, p = 0.001) and depression levels (mean decreased from 12.29 to 11.36, t = -4.855, p < 0.001) post-surgery. Pre- and post-operative depression is prevalent in CABG patients, highlighting the importance of early detection and psychosocial support for improved outcomes.