This cross-sectional study aims to find the prevalence of chronic pain and its correlation with the quality of life and vitamin D levels among hemodialysis patients in Palestine. We used the brief pain inventory, the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey, and Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to assess chronic pain, quality of life, and vitamin D levels, respectively. The study included 200 patients, 38.1% (95% confidence interval 31.3–45.4%) of whom had chronic pain, and 77.7% (95% confidence interval 71.0–83.4%) had deficient Vitamin D levels. Quality of life scores was generally low, with the lowest in role emotional and physical functioning. Sex, comorbidities, and vitamin D level significantly correlate with pain severity. Employment, a number of comorbidities, pain severity, and albumin level are significantly associated with the Physical component of quality of life. On the other hand, employment and pain severity are significantly related to the mental component of quality of life. In conclusion, low vitamin D levels, chronic pain, and low quality of life scores are common among hemodialysis patients. In addition, vitamin D is negatively correlated with pain severity. Therefore, healthcare workers should assess and manage hemodialysis patients' chronic pain to improve their quality of life and reduce suffering.