Synthesis of Rutin Derivatives to Enhance Lipid Solubility and Development of Topical Formulation with a Validated Analytical Method
Publication Type
Original research

Background: Rutin is available on the market as a topical formulation for the treatment of several conditions, such as internal bleeding, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins. However, these gels have low solubility and limited bioavailability due to their decreased lipid solubility.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to synthesize potentially novel lipophilic rutin prodrugs. The suggested library of these rutin prodrugs includes changing the solubility profile to facilitate rutin transport across biological barriers, thereby improving drug delivery through topical application.

Methods: Six rutin derivatives were synthesized based on the ester prodrug strategy. The synthesized compounds were formulated as topical ointments, and their permeability via Franz diffusion was measured. An ultraviolet (UV) analytical method was developed in our laboratories to quantify rutin derivatives both as raw materials and in final dosage forms. The analytical method was then validated.

Results: The results of Franz diffusion analyses showed that transdermal permeability increased by 10-fold for decaacetylated rutin compared to the other esterified rutins. A simple analytical method for the analysis of the formulated rutin ester was developed and validated. Moreover, the formulated ointment of decaacetylated rutin in our research laboratory was found to be stable under stability accelerated conditions. Synthesis of potentially more lipophilic compounds would yield novel rutin prodrugs suitable for topical formulation.

Conclusion: This project provides a synthetic approach for many similar natural products. The research idea and strategy followed in this research project could be adapted by pharmaceutical and herbal establishments.

Current Drug Delivery
Publisher Country
United Arab Emirates
Thomson Reuters
Impact Factor
Publication Type
Both (Printed and Online)