Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Severity Complications among Diabetic Patients: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
Publication Type
Original research

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication associated with uncontrolled DM. It is a leading preventable cause of visual impairment in the world and a cause of blindness in those under 75 years old in developing countries. We aimed to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors of DR among diabetic patients in the West Bank. Materials and Methods:A quantitative multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in all West Bank cities. Nearly, 385 patients underwent a comprehensive eye examination in addition to blood and urine tests. A previously validated questionnaire for ocular examination classification was used together with a socio-demographic and past medical history information sheet. Results: The prevalence of all DR in the West Bank was 41.8%. The prevalence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) was 50.3% (38.5% for mild NPDR, 10.6% for moderate NPDR and 1.2% for severe NPDR). The prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was 9.9% and 39.7% for diabetic macular edema (DME) (17.4% for mild, 15.5% for moderate and 6.8% for severe DME). The prevalence of vision-threatening PDR and DME was 49.7% for both. In a univariate analysis, DR was significantly associated with body mass index; BMI (p = 0.035), DM duration (p = 0.002), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.034), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) level (p = 0.016) andblood urea (BU) (p = 0.044). A multivariate analysis showed a strong significant association between DR andpatients who had DM for 10-19years (adjusted odds ratio; AOR (95%CI); 1.843 (1.05–3.22)), abnormal levels of LDL (AOR (95%CI); 0.50 (0.30–0.83)), abnormal levels of GOT (AOR (95%CI); 0.49 (0.27–0.89)), and overweight (AOR (95%CI); 0.39 (0.19–0.80)). Conclusions: We found that the prevalence of DR in Palestine was higher than the global prevalence. Referral coordination between ophthalmologists and internal physicians is necessary to better follow up with DR patients. An interventional educational program by clinicians and public health professionals is recommended.

Journal of Clinical Medicine (JCM)
Publisher Country
Thomson Reuters
Impact Factor
Publication Type
Online only