Risk of Tobacco Smoking and Consumption of Energy Drinks on Obesity and Central Obesity Among Male University Students
Publication Type
Original research

Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity and premature death. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight in young adulthood is increasing exponentially globally, including Palestine. Consumption of energy drinks (EDs) and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among Palestinian young adults. Although different studies have demonstrated that the use of caffeine and tobacco products is highly prevalent among Palestinians, especially university students, the adverse effects of these products on obesity have not been thoroughly investigated. Methodology Male students from An-Najah National University in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administrated questionnaire in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2021. Obesity was measured as total adiposity by calculating body mass index (BMI) and as central obesity by measuring waist circumference. To determine the association between obesity and ED consumption and tobacco smoking, we used adjusted multiple logistic regression models. Shapiro-Wilk's test was used to assess the normality of the data. Results A total of 396 students filled the questionnaire, with a response rate of 89.4%. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity was 42% and 35.75%, respectively. The prevalence of ED consumption, cigarette smoking, and waterpipe smoking was 59.6%, 39.6%, and 43.2%, respectively. ED consumers were more likely to be cigarette smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 3.827, P < 0.001), waterpipe smokers (OR = 4.578, P < 0.001), and chocolate consumers (OR = 3.524, P = 0.001). Central obesity was associated with waterpipe smoking (OR = 2.126, P = 0.044), increased age (OR = 1.367, P = 0.001), and increased BMI (OR = 1.927, P < 0.001). On the other hand, cigarette smokingincreased the risk of being underweight (OR = 6.255, P = 0.012), and ED consumption decreased the risk of being obese (OR = 0.183, P = 0.017). Conclusions Waterpipe smoking was a risk factor for increased central obesity, and ED consumption was associated with decreased; however, smoking was associated with the underweight BMI category. Given the undesirable health consequences of consuming the closely associated tobacco and EDs, stricter measures are needed to prevent access to these products.

Keywords: central obesity; chocolate; cigarettes; cognitive enhancers; energy drinks; obesity; psychostimulants; smoking; waist circumference; waterpipe.

Cureus Journal of Medical Science
Publisher Country
United States of America
Publication Type
Both (Printed and Online)