History courses are “required” elements among the didactic elements of the medical and pharmacy curricula in many schools around the world. The aim of this study was to develop consensus-based aims, contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods of a history of medicine and pharmacy course for medical and pharmacy students in the Arab World.
A systematic search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Scopus, and Google Scholar was conducted to identify course aims, contents, intended learning outcomes from the literature. The search was supplemented by semi-structured in-depth interviews with 5 educators/academicians, 3 pharmacists, and 3 physicians. The Delphi technique was used among panelists (10 educators/academicians, 4 physicians, and 4 pharmacists) to develop consensus-based course aims, contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods.
The vast majority of the panelists agreed on the 10 items (agreement ≥88.9%) on the importance of teaching history to medical and pharmacy students. Consensus-based aims (n = 4) and intended learning outcomes (n = 13) were developed in the 1st and 2nd iterative Delphi rounds. The panelists suggested that 16 dedicated meeting hours (1 credit hour) would be required to cover the course. Bloom’s verbs were used to target the lower and higher orders of the cognitive domain. The course could be taught through face-to-face lectures, provision of reading materials, video documentaries, case studies, group discussions and debates. Multiple-choice questions, written reflections, portfolios, group projects, and engagement in discussions and debates might be used to evaluate performance of students.
Consensus-based course of history of medicine and pharmacy course was developed for medical and pharmacy students in the Arab World. Well-designed course aims, contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods are more likely to meet the accreditation requirements and might improve performance of medical and pharmacy students. Future studies are still needed to investigate if such consensus-based courses can improve performance of the students.