Salivary Lead Levels among Workers in Different Industrial Areas in the West Bank of Palestine: a Cross-Sectional Study
Publication Type
Original research

Saliva is a biofluid that can easily be obtained and used for biomonitoring lead levels in occupationally and environmentally exposed individuals. The aims of this study were to determine salivary lead levels among workers in different industrial areas in the West Bank of Palestine and investigate the association between sociodemographic and occupational characteristics of the workers and their salivary lead levels. Salivary samples were obtained from workers in different industrial areas in metal-free polyethylene tubes. The samples were analyzed for their lead contents using a pre-validated inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric method. A total of 97 salivary samples were analyzed. The median salivary lead level was 1.84 μg/dL an IQR of 5.04 μg/dL. Salivary lead levels were significantly higher in workers who were 40 years and older (p value = 0.031), had 3 children or more (p value = 0.048), worked in repair workshops (p value = 0.012), worked in industrial areas for 20 years or more (p value = 0.048), did not consume fruits on regular basis (p value = 0.031), and smoked for 30 years or more (p value = 0.013). Multiple linear regression showed that smoking of 30 years old or more was a significant (p value < 0.001) predictor of higher salivary lead levels. Salivary lead levels among workers from different industrial areas of the West Bank were comparable to those occupationally exposed to lead in more industrialized and urbanized areas of the world. Smoking was a predictor of higher salivary lead levels.

Biol Trace Elem Res
Publisher Country
Thomson Reuters
Impact Factor
Publication Type
Both (Printed and Online)