Inula viscosa (L.) Greuter (DV) has been utilized in folk medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antiseptic, and antiphlogistic properties. Numerous studies highlighted the beneficial impact of (DV) on different diseases, yet research lacks information on its effect on neurodegeneration, specifically concerning neurotoxicity.
The EO chemical composition of (DV) hydroethanolic extract was investigated using GC–MS, while the antioxidant potential was performed using (DPPH) assay and FRAP. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods. Experiments targeted the fastest ligand-gated ion channels involved in excitotoxicity. Hence, (DV) was examined for any inhibitory actions against all AMPARs presented in the CNS via whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology on HEK293 cells. Moreover, the effect of (DV) on other AMPAR biophysical parameters such as desensitization and deactivation was assessed.
GC–MS revealed the presence of twenty-one components, representing 100% of the total constituents. The major components were patchulane, 3-b-phenoxy-24-nor-cholan-5,20(22)-diene, 3-ethyl-3‑hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one and γ-gurjunene. (DV) showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value (13.5 ± 0.44 µg/ml) compared to Trolox (3.23±0.92 µg/ml). High value for TPC (193.07±9.1 mg Gallic acid eq./g) and TFC (594.9 ± 12.2 mg Rutin eq./g) were found. Of the examined AMPARs, (DV) inhibited GluA1 and GluA2 homomer AMPARs but not GluA3 or GluA4. (DV) inhibited both heterologous expression forms; GluA1/2 and GluA2/3 yet showed considerable significance for GluA1/2. (DV) was also selective to particular AMPAR subunits on the desensitization and deactivation.
The current study showed high antioxidant potential, high total phenolics, and flavonoids and demonstrated neuroprotective properties of (DV) concerning neurotoxicity.