Introduction: End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the ultimate result of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In Palestine, the prevalence of ESRD was 240.3 PMP which is comparable with the nearby countries. Accelerated bone loss among ESRD patients is attributed to abnormal bone turnover that leads to osteoporosis and osteopenia. The risk of fractures is increased four-fold in men and women on hemodialysis, which explains the importance of assessing the bone mineral density among these populations. The goals of this study were to find the prevalence of osteoporosis in ESRD patients as determined by bone mineral density (BMD) at different sites and to determine whether BMD correlates with many other clinical parameters.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 194 ESRD patients were recruited from the dialysis unit in An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, Palestine. The patients were on regular hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and the hip using the dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and the value is expressed as T-score. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 26. The relationship between BMD and the clinical and biochemical parameters among the ESRD patients was assessed.
Results: We found that 42.8% of ESRD patients had osteoporosis and 40.2% had osteopenia. There were significantly higher proportions of osteoporosis and osteopenia among patients >60 years of age (p<0.005). Patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia had significantly higher serum levels of PTH (792.9 and 469.7) (p<0.05). BMD decreases as the duration of dialysis (39.0 months Vs. 56.8 months), (p<0.05). We found no significant difference between patients on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Conclusion: This study showed that Palestinian patients with ESRD have low BMD at the hip and spine. The observed high serum level of PTH was associated with low BMD. Those patients should be closely monitored especially those with more than one risk factor. Moreover, more attention should be paid to these categories of patients to decrease the incidence of falling down and the resulting fractures that might lead to mortality and morbidity.