Nepeta curviflora essential oil: Phytochemical composition, antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-migratory efficacy against cervical cancer cells, and α-glucosidase, α-amylase and porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities
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Original research

The essential oils extracted from plants play an important role in medicine in addition to their huge value in the cosmetics and nutraceutical industries. In this investigation, besides the identification and quantification of the phytochemical composition of Nepeta curviflora Boiss essential oil, in-vitro antioxidant, porcine pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase, and α-amylase inhibitory activities of the essential oil obtained by microwave ultrasonic-assisted extraction were investigated. More importantly, it was designed to assess the essential oil impact on cell migration and cell proliferation of cervical cancer cell lines. The phytochemical composition of Nepeta curviflora essential oil was qualitatively and quantitatively determined utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Twenty compounds were identified from Nepeta curviflora essential oil representing 100% of total essential oil, of which 1,6-dimethyl spiro[4.5]decane (27.51%), caryophyllene oxide (20.08%), and β-caryophyllene (18.28%) were the most abundant compounds. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was measured as 6.3 ± 0.43 μg/mL in comparison with trolox (positive control) employing the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The high concentrations of the caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene thought to contribute significantly to the antioxidant of the essential oil. The obtained essential oil displayed α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 26.3 ± 0.57, 45.7 ± 0.26, and 54.9 ± 0.34 μg/mL, respectively, in comparison with the positive controls orlistat and acarbose which showed IC50 values of 12.3 ± 0.33, 28.84 ± 1.22 and 37.15 ± 0.32 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, anticancer activity was established exploiting wound healing and cell proliferation assays against cervical cancer cell lines. Remarkably, non-cytotoxic concentrations of Nepeta curviflora essential oil have significantly inhibited the migration potential of cervical cancer cells after 24 h of treatment and revealed that the oil concentration and treatment time increase the inhibitory action on cervical cancer cell viability.

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