Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Sheets with Different Moieties and Their Effects on Biological Activities.
Publication Type
Original research

The ongoing spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria over the past few decades necessitates collateral efforts to develop new classes of antibacterial agents with different mechanisms of action. The utilization of graphene nanosheets has recently gained attention with this respect. Herein, we have synthesized and tested the antibacterial activity of an array of graphene materials covalently functionalized with hydroxyl-, amine-, or carboxyl-containing groups. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed successful functionalization of the few-layer graphene (FLG). The percentage of weight loss was measured by thermogravimetric analysis, which was found to be 22%, 23%, and 37% for FLG-TEG-OH, FLG-NH2, and FLG-DEG-COOH, respectively. In comparison with pristine graphene sheets, the functionalized few-layer graphene (f-FLG) materials gained an adequate dispersibility in water as confirmed by ζ potential analysis. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, where all f-FLG compounds were able to suppress bacterial growth, with a complete suppression achieved by FLG-DEG-COOH. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 250 μg mL–1 for both FLG-TEG-OH and FLG-NH2, while it was 125 μg mL–1 for FLG-DEG-COOH. The glutathione oxidation test demonstrated an oxidative stress activity by all f-FLG compounds. However, FLG-DEG-COOH demonstrated the highest reduction in glutathione activity. FLG-DEG-COOH and FLG-TEG-OH showed adequate biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. The chemical functionalization of graphene might be a step toward the foundation of an effective class of antimicrobial agents.

ACS biomaterials science and engineering
american chemical society
Publisher Country
United States of America
Thomson Reuters
Impact Factor
Publication Type
Both (Printed and Online)