A cellulose derivative with multiple coordination sites for metals composed of cellulose powder and 1,2-pheneylnediamine was synthesized and evaluated as an adsorbent for metal ions from wastewater. The cellulose powder was generated from the solid waste of the olive industry. The adsorption efficiency of the cellulose amine polymer toward Fe(III) and Pb(II) was investigated as a function of adsorbent dose, temperature, pH, and time. The adsorption parameters that lead to excellent adsorption efficiency were determined. In addition, the polymer showed an excellent extraction efficiency toward approximately 20 metal ions present in a sewage sample. The cellulose amine derivative had several coordination sites that included amine, hydroxyl, and aromatic groups. The diversity and frequency of the coordination sites explained the high efficiency of the polymer for metal ions. The thermodynamic analysis results supported the spontaneous adsorption efficiency of the polymer at room temperature. The adsorption process fit well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.