Olive (Olea europaea) is host of 13 different viruses but, it is possible that other viruses, which are either non mechanically transmissible or occur in low concentration in plant tissues, are present in nature. This likelihood is supported by the widespread occurrence of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants negative to biological tests. As very little information is available on the geographical distribution of olive-infecting, investigations were conducted for gathering information on the prevalence and distribution of olive viruses in the Mediterranean basin based on the presence of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). A total of 527 samples were collected throughout the surveys covering 10 countries and 83 locations. Out of 286 tested samples collected from 6 Italian regions, 210 (73.4%) were dsRNA positive, whereas the average of viral infections in the Mediterranean basin was 64.5%. Molecular hybridisation tests, on 25 % of dsRNA-positive samples collected in Apulia, revealed the presence of the three nepoviruses (ArMV, CLRV and SLRSV), OLYaV and OLV-1.