The Impact of Modern Artificial Lighting on the Optimum Window-to-Wall Ratio of Residential Buildings in Jordan
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Energy savings gained through natural lighting could be offset by the loss of energy through windows; therefore, the target of this study is to examine the effects of enhancing the efficiency of lighting systems on the optimum window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of Jordanian residential structures. This research proposes the hypothesis that the WWR of residential structures that contain artificial lighting systems with increased efficiency will be lower than buildings in which solar lighting is provided. The energy simulation tool, DesignBuilder (DesignBuilder Software Ltd, Stroud, UK) was used to simulate an intricate model showing a standard Jordanian residential building with a size of 130 m2. The study offers useful guidance regarding the optimum WWR for key decisionmakers when designing energy-efficient residential structures in the context of Jordan. By considering the balance between gains and losses in solar heat and light gain to exploit energy from solar sources with no reverse effects, while making comparisons between different WWR situations, the findings indicate that the typical WWR for residential structures in Jordan that have efficient Light Emitting Diode (LED) systems of lighting installed could be between 25% and 30%, which is lower than the highest WWR stipulated by the ASHRAE standards.

Applied Sciences
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