In most arid regions of the world, the increasing agricultural water supply–demand gap jeopardizes sustainable agricultural development and, as such, undermines local food security. In such situations, unconventional water resource practices such as agricultural rainwater harvesting (ARWH) can be potentially used to tackle agricultural water poverty (AWP). This study aims to integrate AWP and agricultural rainwater harvesting suitability (ARWHS) maps to identify locations where ARWH can be of the most benefit to the West Bank, Palestine. These maps were developed under the GIS environment. The weighted overlay summation process (WOSP), supported by the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), was utilized. Research findings of the AWP map indicate that high to very high AWP covers about 61% of the study area, whereas, the findings of the ARWHS map shows that highly suitable ARWH areas cover 65% of the total study area. Further, 31% of the study area has highly suitable sites for the implementation of proper ARWH techniques. Finally, the combined mapping between the ARWHS map and agricultural lands indicates that high to very high ARWH-suitable areas cover 53% of the rough grazing areas (62% of the entire West Bank area). Thus, the implementation of proper ARWH techniques in such areas is seen to be a sustainable water management option for achieving agricultural sustainability and, accordingly, improved food security in the West Bank, Palestine.